Reasons for the Munich Agreement

Meanwhile, the British government has demanded that Beneš ask for a mediator. As Beneš did not want to sever his government`s relations with Western Europe, he reluctantly agreed. The Sudeten Germans were ordered by Hitler to avoid any compromise,[25] and the SdP organized demonstrations that provoked a police action in Ostrava on September 7, during which two of their deputies were arrested. [23] The Sudeten Germans used the incident and false claims about other atrocities as a pretext to break off new negotiations. [23] [26] The British people expected war imminent, and Chamberlain`s “statesman gesture” was initially greeted with applause. He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before presenting the deal to the British Parliament. The generally positive reaction quickly deteriorated, despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and the Labour Party rejected the deal, in alliance with two Conservative MPs, Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a stubborn and reactionary element in the Conservative Party. The New York Times headline on the Munich Accords read: “Hitler gets less than his demands from the Sudetenland” and reported that a “cheerful crowd” cheered Daladier on his return to France, and that Chamberlain was “savagely acclaimed” on his return to Britain. [54] The invocation of Munich in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During Secretary of State John Kerry`s negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal, a Texas Republican lawmaker called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” Kerry himself had invoked Munich in a speech in France, in which he advocated military action in Syria saying, “This is our Munich moment.” [108]. The solution to the Czechoslovak problem that has just been found is, in my opinion, only the prelude to a greater solution in which all of Europe can find peace.

This morning I had another conversation with the German Chancellor, Mr Hitler, and here is the newspaper that says both his name and my name. Some of you may have heard what`s in it, but I just want to read it to you: “. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as a symbol of the will of our two peoples never to go to war with each other again. [96] Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, recognizing the desperation of the struggle against the Nazis alone, reluctantly capitulated (September 30) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany the Sudetenland from October 10 and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On September 30, after a little rest, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler`s interpreter translated it for him, he happily accepted.

One aspect of the enormous turmoil of the past two weeks must affect anyone thinking about its history. In the three most powerful states of Central and Eastern Europe, people were not allowed to know what was being said and done outside. In Russia, there seems to have been very little news. In Germany and Italy, news was deliberately falsified if it was not suppressed. The German people were not allowed to hear about President Roosevelt`s message. The Italian people were led to believe that Chamberlain agreed with Hitler and was only concerned with putting pressure on Benes. They were given a bad version of one of his speeches. On the 22nd. Chamberlain, who was about to board his plane to go to Germany for further talks in Bad Godesberg, told the press that met him there: “My goal is peace in Europe, I am confident that this journey is the path to that peace.” Chamberlain came to Cologne, where he received a generous welcome with a German band playing “God Save the King” and Germans who gave Chamberlain flowers and gifts.

[32] Chamberlain had calculated that full acceptance of the German annexation of all sudetenland without reductions would force Hitler to accept the agreement. [32] When Hitler learned of this, he replied, “Does this mean that the Allies accepted Prague`s consent to the surrender of the Sudetenland to Germany?” Chamberlain replied, “Exactly,” to which Hitler reacted with a nod, saying that the Allies` offer was insufficient. He told Chamberlain that he wanted Czechoslovakia completely dissolved and its territories distributed to Germany, Poland, and Hungary, and ordered Chamberlain to take or leave it. [32] Chamberlain was shocked by this statement. [32] Hitler went on to tell Chamberlain that since their last meeting on the 15th, Czechoslovakia`s actions, which Hitler said involved murders of Germans, had made the situation unbearable for Germany. [32] If Germany`s objective was the economic and financial destruction of Czechoslovakia, the Munich Agreements go a long way to satisfy it. But, one might insist, while the Czechs may suffer economically, they have the political protection of an international guarantee. When Chamberlain returned from Munich, he told an excited crowd at Heston Airport, “This is peace for our time,” waving the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler broke his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. In less than a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. London, FridayThe Munich Accords give Hitler (initially) everything he wants, except that they may not allow him to get it as quickly as he would have done under Godesberg`s undizzy ultimatum.

He will begin tomorrow the invasion of Czechoslovakia, as he threatened in his speech of 12 September. It is free to occupy all regions where Sudeten Germans are in the majority, and to do so in rapid stages. On the 29th. An agreement was reached on September 30, 1938, around 1:30 a.m.m. .m.[43] Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini, and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Accords. The agreement was officially introduced by Mussolini, although the Italian plan was in fact almost identical to Godesberg`s proposal: the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by October 10 and an international commission would decide on the future of the other disputed territories. For Hitler, Munich was a moment of supreme triumph, for Britain a moment of shame and disaster. But it was also intended to prove Hitler`s perdition and the emergence of Britain.

Munich hadn`t given Hitler everything he wanted, but it put him almost incredibly within striking range of his ultimate goal. If he had been content to continue as he had begun, with the same prudence and the same clever sense of timing, and had calmly waited for the French and British vigilance to dissipate, as would certainly be the case without further provocation, it is very likely that he would have succeeded. He could easily have afforded to leave Prague alone after neutralizing Czechoslovakia; a sudden blow to Gdansk and then only Russia would have remained, which should have fought a hopeless war on its own. But the triumph of Munich proved too great for Hitler and the temptation to invade Prague victoriously turned out to be too great, so he abandoned the prudence that had served him so well and fatally changed the game won so far. At first, he exacerbated the fears of Britain and France rather than telling them that the deal had not given him what he wanted, and arming himself even faster. On 12 March, he sent his armies to Prague and followed them three days later. He was at Hradčany Castle, the highest point of the city, and looked triumphantly at the land he had coveted for so long, thinking that his dream of an Eastern Empire that would last a thousand years had practically come true. But within two weeks, the situation should change completely. On the last day of March, Chamberlain, despite many contradictory constraints, suddenly decided to offer Poland an unconditional guarantee of military support in the event of an invasion of its territory. In all respects, it was a courageous, even historic act, which did not receive the recognition it deserves. On Hitler, the effect was instantaneous and dramatic. After a few moments of total disbelief, he snapped blindly and angrily at the table and shouted, “I`m going to cook them a stew on which they will choke.” September 29-30, 1938: Germany, Italy, Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must hand over its border regions and defenses (the so-called Sudetenland region) to Nazi Germany.