In 2017, the EU market was 28 Member States, 500 million consumers and $22 trillion in annual economic activity. As in the United States and Mexico, NAFTA has not kept the most extravagant promises of its Canadian boosters and has not aroused the worst fears of its adversaries. The Canadian auto industry has complained that low Mexican wages have driven the country`s jobs. When General Motors dismantled 625 jobs at an Ontario plant in January and transferred them to Mexico, Unifor, the country`s largest private sector union, held NAFTA responsible. Jim Stanford, an economist working for the union, told CBC News in 2013 that NAFTA had caused a “production disaster in the country.” Turley cautions that preferential tariffs under free trade agreements do not apply automatically, but should be invoked. The exporter or importer must provide a certificate of origin containing basic information about the product and certifying that it complies with the applicable rule of origin. But other economists, including Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Cathleen Cimino-Isaacs of the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE), have pointed out that increased trade is paying off the U.S. economy. Some jobs are lost because of imports, others are created and consumers benefit greatly from lower prices and often improved product quality. Your 2014 PIIE study on the impact of NAFTA revealed a net loss of about 15,000 jobs per year as a result of the pact – but gains of about $450,000 for each job lost, in the form of higher productivity and lower consumer prices.