– foreign investors must be treated in accordance with international law and not treated less favourably as investors from the host country or not less favourable as investors from third countries, according to the most favourable treatment (“national regime” or “most-favoured-nation treatment”), subject to certain derogations laid down; – international standards apply to the expropriation of investments and the payment of compensation for expropriation; – free transfers are granted to funds that are linked to an investment in and from the host country; procedures should be established to enable an investor to bring a dispute directly with a party to binding third-party arbitration. The definition section of the ILO MODEL clarifies terms such as “party enterprise” and “investment”. The ILO approach to “investment” is broad and flexible; Although many types of economic interests are listed, the intention is to include all legitimate interests in the territory of one Contracting Party, whether directly or indirectly controlled by nationals of the other Party, have economic value or are “related” to an investment. Protected “companies of a Contracting Party” are those which are constituted or otherwise organized under the law of a Contracting Party and in which the nationals of that Party have an essential interest. Another new development in the global AI system is to strengthen the conclusion of such agreements among developing countries. In the past, developed countries have generally entered into ESAs to protect their companies when investing abroad, while developing countries have tended to sign IAs to encourage and encourage the inflow of foreign direct investment from industrialized countries. The current trend towards strengthening IIA findings in developing countries reflects the economic changes underlying international investment relations. Developing and emerging countries are increasingly not only destination countries, but also important countries of origin of FDI flows. In line with their emerging role as foreign investors and their increased economic competitiveness, developing countries increasingly have the dual interest of encouraging inflows, but also of protecting the investments of their companies abroad. Some provisions of the treaty with Turkey are slightly different from the American model. As a general rule, however, the treaty closely follows the language contained in the American model text, the main provisions of which are as follows. International tax treaties focus on the elimination of double taxation, but may at the same time address related issues such as the prevention of tax evasion. Hong Kong has worked to sign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (“IIPS” or abbreviated as “Investment Agreements”) with foreign economies to improve reciprocal investment flows and boost our economy.
An IPPA is an agreement between governments to promote and protect the investments of investors of one Contracting Party in the field of the other Party. President (spoke in French): I have the honour to introduce to you the Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Turkey on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments, with related Protocol and Exchange of Letters, signed in Washington, D.C., on 3 December 1986. This treaty is one of the first six treaties negotiated under the bilateral investment agreement (ILO) that you initiated in 1981. The development of the ILO program and the negotiation of the various contracts were encouraged by the Office of the United States Trade Representative and the Department of State, with the active participation of the Department of Commerce and the United States. . . .